ABO Blood Grouping Teaching Kit
Cat# BB-ITK070 (100 reactions)
Aim: To determine the blood group and Rh factor of an individual.
Principle: The most well-known and medically important blood types are ABO group. ABO groups were discovered in 1900 and 1901 at the University of Vienna by Karl Landsteiner in the process of trying to learn why blood transfusions sometimes cause death and at other times save a patient. In 1930, he belatedly received the Nobel Prize for his discovery of blood types. The ABO and Rh blood grouping system is based on agglutination reaction. When red blood cells carrying one or both the antigens are exposed to the corresponding antibodies, they interact with each other to form visible agglutination or clumping. The ABO blood group antigens are O-linked glycoproteins in which the terminal sugar residues exposed at the cell surface of the red blood cells determine whether the antigen is A or B.
The human ABO blood group system is divided into the following four major groups depending on the antigen present on the surface of their red blood cells:
- “A” group
- “B” group
- “AB” group
- “O” group
Blood group “A”
Blood group “A” individuals have A antigens on RBCs and anti-B antibodies in blood plasma.
Blood group “B”
Blood group “B” individuals have B antigens on RBCs and anti-A antibodies in blood plasma.
Blood group “AB”
Blood group “AB” individuals have both A and B antigens on RBCs and neither anti-A nor anti-B antibodies in blood plasma.
Blood group “O”
Blood group “O” individuals have neither A antigens nor B antigens, but possess both anti-A and anti-B antibodies in blood plasma.
Rh factor: The Rhesus system (Rh) is the second most important blood group system in humans. Rh (Rhesus) antigens are transmembrane proteins in which the loops exposed on the surface of red blood cells interact with the corresponding antibodies. Persons having this antigen on the surface of RBCs are called Rh (+ve) and those who lack the antigen are called Rh (-ve).
A person with Rh (-ve) blood does not have Rh antibodies naturally in their blood plasma, but he/she can develop Rh antibodies in the blood plasma if he or she receives blood from a person with Rh (+ve) blood.
The Rh antigens can trigger the production of Rh antibodies in the Rh (-ve) blood plasma. A person with Rh (+ve) blood can receive blood from a person with Rh (-ve) blood without any problems.
Together, the ABO and Rh grouping systems yield our complete blood type. There are eight possible types: O+, O-, A+, A-, B+, B-, AB+, and AB-.
While type O negative has long been considered a universal donor, more recent research suggests that additional antibodies are sometimes present and may cause serious reactions during a transfusion
Genetic Inheritance Pattern:
ABO blood types are inherited and are determined by genes present on chromosome 9. The ABO blood type results from the inheritance of 1 of 3 alleles (A, B, or O) from each parent. The possible are outcomes are:
Offspring genotypes are shown in italics and phenotypes in bold.
Both A and B alleles are dominant over O, as a result persons having AO genotype will have an A phenotype. Similarly, a person having BO genotype will have B phenotype. People who are type O have OO genotype. In other words, they inherited a recessive O allele from both parents. The A and B alleles are co-dominant. Therefore, if an A allele is inherited from one parent and a B allele from the other, the phenotype will be AB. Agglutination test shows that these individuals have the characteristics of both type A and type B blood.
Bio Bharati ABO Blood Grouping Teaching Kit enables rapid identification of ABO blood group and Rh factor depending upon the antigen present on the surface of red blood cells (RBCs). Pathological micro-slides, blood lancets and sterile mixing sticks are provided in the kit. Individual student can determine their blood group very easily in less time.
# BB-ITK070: This kit is designed to perform 100 experiments.
Duration of the Experiment: Approximately 20 minutes.
Quantity for 100 reactions
Anti A monoclonal Ab (Blue)
Anti B monoclonal Ab (Yellow)
Anti Rh D Monoclonal Ab (Colorless)
Sterile mixing stick
Materials required but not provided: Reagents: 70% alcohol / Rectified spirit
Other consumables: Cotton
Storage: Bio Bharati ABO Blood Group Teaching kit is stable for 6 months from the date of receipt without showing any change in performance if stored properly as recommended. Once received, store the anti-sera into 4°C freezer and rest of the items in room temperature.
- Read the procedure carefully before starting the
- Wear gloves while performing the
- Always use separate dropper for separate antibodies, never mix the dropper. Do not allow the dropper to touch the blood
- Ensure that the glass slide is clean and grease-free before
- Do not mix the blood
- The result of the agglutination should be interpreted within 5 minutes.
- Dangle the hand down to increase the flow of blood in the
- Clean the fingertip to be pierced with spirit or 70% alcohol (usually ring or middle finger).
- With the help of the sterile lancet, pierce the fingertip and place one drop of blood in the micro-slide in 3 places.
- Add one drop of different anti-serum provided in the kit just beside the blood drop.
- Mix each blood drop and the anti-serum using a fresh mixing
- Observe agglutination in the form of fine red granules within 30 Anti-RhD takes slightly longer time to agglutinate compared to Anti A and Anti B.
Note: Proper care should be taken while disposing the lancet and mixing sticks.
Observation and Results
+Figure: Determination of blood group and Rh factor based on agglutination observed in different blood samples
- If agglutination is observed when blood is mixed with Anti-A monoclonal antibody, then the individual is said to have blood group “A”.
- If agglutination is observed when blood is mixed with Anti-B monoclonal antibody, then the individual is said to have blood group “B”.
- If agglutination is observed when blood is mixed with both Anti-A and Anti-B monoclonal antibody, then the individual have said to have blood group “AB”.
- If no agglutination is observed when blood is mixed with Anti-A and Anti-B monoclonal antibody, then the individual is said to have blood group “O”.
- If agglutination is observed when blood is mixed with Anti-RhD monoclonal antibody, then the individual is said to have “+ve” Rh factor.
- If no agglutination is observed when blood is mixed with Anti-RhD monoclonal antibody, then the individual is said to have “-ve” Rh factor.
No agglutination observed
Anti-sera not stored under proper conditions
Ensure that the antisera are stored in proper conditions
Adapted from internet
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